India is part of the world’s most populated and poorly developed global regions in the world. It stretches from approximately 36 degrees North along its mountainous northern borders, this highly complex country reaches almost to the Equator, and divides the northern Indian ocean into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Its population reached a billion in 1999.It is estimated that soon India will have more of a population than China,India today has a population of 1.21 billion people and is the second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over 1.35 billion people. The figures show that India represents almost 17.31% of the world’s population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India. This is seen as a major problem for India to deal with for its economic sustainability to deal with. This is not the only problem facing India because India still has mainly a rural-based economy, and the average daily income per person is only little over an American dollar. India also from my views is not totally sustainable but becoming more sustainable in its actions. We tend to think of sustainability as having three dimensions,ecological,economic and social but these three dimensions are not separate in reality, they are intertwined. Plus, sustainability has an international perspective that we must consider.Acting and behaving according to this concept of sustainability is a global task, and is a key question for humanity. In combating poverty, all three dimensions of sustainability have to be taken into account. This is what the Indian government are now taking into consideration to make their economy more attractive for companies to locate here and make their economy more profitable and sustainable in the long-term.
The majority of India’s continent is situated in the tropical latitudes, only the mountainous zones of the north and the north-west have frost. Temperatures year-round are relatively high, so the main climatic variable is precipitation and the monsoon. This weather shapes the patterns of the development and livelihoods of the majority of the people in India. The monsoon rains are essential for India’s development because delay in the monsoons arrival affects planting of crops and the delay in the production of the crops, then if the monsoon brings poor rains, it has an adverse effect on the growing crops such as rice, etc which needs waterlogged conditions. Low yields and poor harvests can lead to starvation for millions of farmers and their families who depend on the rice crop for nutrition and survival.With only one in four people living in urban centers, the service sector also remains underdeveloped by international standards. India’s economy is dominated by agriculture, and to understand the country’s problems it is important to know that the majority of the wealthy countries have the majority of their income coming in from the secondary and tertiary sector, for example 79% of Ireland’s gross domestic products have come from the manufacturing and services sector. For India to become more economically sustainable it has to increase its capital coming from the services and manufacturing sectors.
The primary sector
India as a nation has surprisingly a large amount of land that has good agricultural potential, but only the mountainous regions and the large Thar desert is not suitable for agricultural purposes. Success in this sector is vital because, two-thirds of India’s huge working population depend directly on the land for earning a living and if the crop fails many a million of their population will die from starvation.India in previous years was colonized by Britain(1947) but when India received their independence the country recognized agriculture as a key sector for national development.This was clearly a bad move by India’s government because little profit could be made in this sector because the majority of the profit from raw material to finished products are made in the manufacturing and services sector and a lot of money had to be pumped into the agricultural sector first to get a little back.Most small farms are also broken up into tiny and scattered parcels of land. This actually reduces the productivity of the land even more and makes introducing modern farm practices, such as mechanized, difficult. The scattered and small plots of land clearly shows how unsustainable the agricultural sector is over in India. India’s government today are now sorting out this problem by knocking down these boundaries for these small plots of land and creating larger more easier mechanized plots of land for farmers to farm, due to this the farmers are making more profit from their crops because they have more land to farm and easier to harvest, sow their crops because now the farmers have more money to purchase machines which would do these jobs more simply and easily for them.
Types of farming in India
Agriculture is vital for India’s economy and also its sustainability because, it supplies most of the country’s food supplies, supplies products such as(tea,coffee) for export, Employs over 60% of the country’s workforce, Uses most of India’s land area and provides the government with a large % of its taxation revenue. Before India was colonised India had a very sustainable economic agricultural sector, but when britain colonised then, Britain made them grow cash crops which were shipped back to these developed countries with little or no profit going for the producers in India. The colonist used India’s fertile land, abused their cheap abundant labour, their underdeveloped transport systems. They also devastated their sustainability as a nation and reduced their confidence as been able to run their country themselves.The majority of the farming that takes place in India is in the production of rice. The rice that is farmed has only one purpose and one purpose only, to feed his/her family. Rice is grown mainly in the flood plains of the Indus and Ganges rivers. Little or no sustainable methods are used in the rice production and development, no fertilizers are used by these peasant farmers because they don’t have the sufficient money, finance to purchase them so nutrients that the crop takes from the ground is not recycled back into the ground. Almost all planting, weeding and harvesting is done by hand, with all of the farmers family involved, this clearly in my eyes is not sustainable because if there farming practices were more modernized it would require less man power to harvest and sow the crop and produce a higher yield. Keeping a controlled depth of water is very important, because water provides moisture but also nutrients due to the deposits that are in suspension in the water, this type of fertilization and hydration plan is clearly not sustainable and safe because if the river doesn’t burst its banks and floods the paddy fields, a failed crop will be produced that year meaning million of India’s civilians would die from starvation. India are now today taking the opportunity for raising their sustainable techniques through more modern farming practices and this practice has taken place from 2001 to present day, today for example they are using fertilizers, seeds which are certified and the introduction of bigger plot of land and the rotation of crops each year, they also as a continent are taking advantage of the genetically modified crops, which are actually more disease resistant and produce higher yields. These seeds also have a larger germination rate compared to the normal rice seed, these seeds/crops also don’t require as much water either as the other type of seeds used by them in previous years so if the rivers don’t burst their banks sufficiently and flood their flood plains these crops will still grow accordingly resulting in fewer people in their population would die from starvation. All these advancements from 2001 has only taken place because of government incentives and advice.
How India is sustainable in the secondary sector
From my opinion when India gained its independence from Britain in 1947, it had only a limited range of industries such as textiles and food processing, this was less sustainable for a continent the size of India and they should have been more clearly diversified, also when India gained independence only 2% of the working population was employed in industry, this employment only occurred also only in the cities in India. Five to Ten years after gaining independence, India’s government tried to make India more sustainable, they did this by encouraging companies, multinational companies etc to set up their factories over there, their direct aim was to reduce India’s independence on imported industrial goods and to promote greater wealth and employment across the country. This idea helped India on becoming more of a wealth nation because they had two things that helped India’s industrial sector prosper, they had a large population so this provided a large home market for the goods which were produced and also the had a relatively cheap but skillful labour force which attracted many companies to set up their industries in their country. They also developed a modernized communication system around the country which also attracted a lot of companies to set up there also.
India now in the 21st century has become more a developed economy and see’s the sustainability of its country as a major issue, nowadays high technology industries such as bioprocessing, etc are attracted to india’s population of skilled workers, low costs of manufacturing and improved communication systems. These high valued industries presented a new and modern face to india, they also suggested a brighter future for the country’s industrial/manufacturing base. India now are targeting science developement as way of developing their country to a higher and more sophisticated branch and also increase their countries sustainability and sufficiency, India’s government have invested heavily in the development of science based subjects in their education programs and due to this have the largest amount of science graduates graduating from their universities each year. Modernisation of india’s traditional industries, such as textiles, and the introduction of new high-tech industries, such as pharmaceuticals, etc provide a new basis for national development and increases their sustainability and economic position as a nation.
Is india’s tertiary sector sustainable???, and how if possible will they as a nation increase their sustainability in this sector???
IIndia’s tertiary sector remains underdeveloped, it is very hard also for their government to resolve this problem also because about 70% of the country’s population lives in rural areas. Most of the people who live in these rural areas are very poor and don’t have the money for services such as schools, health care, banking even if they were available in these remote locations. The majority of the service sector companies in India are located in India’s major cities because their would be a large population situated there and the people from the city have the finances to splash out on these services. In the larger cities, there are job opportunities in services, such as government administration, finance and banking, retailing and education. This sector is also making India more sustainable and become more of a developed economy but the black marketing which is illegal in india such as drug dealing, prostitution, thieving, etc it hazardous towards the government because india has to spend more on law enforcement and less can go into education. Black marketing within India’s society is reducing India’s sustainability as a nation. Developments within transport and tourism in recent years have made India become more of a marketable location and since India is so big the government have invested heavily in the transportation sector but still from the 600000 villages located around India only 480000 of them have access to tarred well maintained roadways!.
Can India rely on tourism as a sustainable future???
India offers major attractions for the international tourist trade. International transport links have also improved in recent years, bringing more and more tourists to the country, due to India having an underdeveloped economy, tourism offers many advantages, and the government actively promotes this industry.India has many attractions such as the amazing/ spectacular mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the vast numbers of palaces and fortifications that are scattered throughout India and the great rivers and varied physical landscapes that India as a continent has to offer us. India has a lot of work ahead of them yet in promoting tourism as a basis for development, a lot of investment has to be made in upgrading internodal transport links and tourist facilities, such as accommodation. Another aspect that India’s economy should consider is that some tourists may be put off by the sheer pressure of population and the obvious poverty of many of the people who are homeless in India. Tourism can be seen as one option how India as a country could make their country profitably sustainable but the size and especially the rate of population growth in India is the key factor behind many of the problems facing the country.
The main reason for the rapid growth in India’s population is its high birth rate and also due to better health care services the death rates have gone down a lot. This rapid population growth is not only affecting this prosperous tourist industry but also putting pressure on their government to make sure there is enough food available for their growing population and enough jobs available also for this rising population figures. In the 1970s the government started a campaign to reduce birth rates. They offered incentives to encourage people to use birth control and reduce average family sizes. The campaign had some success but it has been hard to educate quickly large numbers of the population to the advantages of family planning. It is especially difficult in remoter rural communities, where large families are still seen in a positive way. Even with the slowdown in the rate of natural increase since the 1970’s, the sheer size of the population and its young age profile have resulted in ever-greater numbers being added to India’s total population. As urbanisation continues, it is thought that the birth rate will decline and help slow down the country’s rate of natural increase. The other problem the Indian government are also facing is the unevenness of their population distribution is also making them as an economy less sustainable and harder to manage, there is many ares of very dense concentrations of people in the major river valleys, narrow coastal plains and hinterlands of major cities.
I have so far given how in general India as a country has become sustainable since it’s independence from Britain but in general I’m going to concentrate on agriculture and their sustainable electrical energy requirements and production!!
India is the 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 4% of the global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. India’s sustainable energy is controlled by the government of India’s,Ministry of power, ministry of coal reserves and department of renewable energy.Thermal power plants are the main generator of electricity followed by hydroelectric power generation, 2.78% of the electrical energy is created by nuclear power plants and 10.75% by renewable energy sources. More than 50% of India’s commercial energy demand is met through the country’s coal and fossil fuel reserves. India’s government has also recently invested heavily in the generation of their electricity by renewable means, such as the installation of solar panels and wind turbines. In July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of their electricity requirements by solar power energy by 2020. India has committed massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW.The country’s annual energy production increased from about 190 billion kWh in 1986 to more than 680 billion kWh in 2006. The Indian government has set a modest target to add approximately 78,000 MW of installed generation capacity by 2012 which it is likely to miss. The total demand for electricity in India is expected to cross 950,000 MW by 2030. This expansion is clearly not adequate for to make India have their electrical production more than 60% sustainable because the unplanned growth in reactive load has resulted in poor voltage profile and more sub transmission and distribution losses, as a result the financial health of State Electricity Boards (SEBs) become a matter of grave concern as their losses had reached an alarming level of Rs.26,000 crores during 2000-01,which was equivalent to about 1.5% of GDP. If the Indian government don’t start pulling up their socks and make electricity production more profitable and sustainable all the other sectors within India’s market place will also become less sustainable because Power is a critical infrastructure for economic growth.
Sustainability in India’s agricultural sector!!!
Sustainability in agriculture is referring to raising soil fertility, improving water storage capacity, increasing water quality, diversification, raising Peoples capability to cope with risks and withstand natural calamities, reducing energy consumption, minimising risk and use of modern practice. India is improving their sustainability in these sectors already by the following means, using advanced fertilizers using modern irrigation schemes and also by using genetically modified crops which are more disease resistant and produce more of a yield, the farming also has become less labour intensive and more mechanised by using more machines in the producing and manufacture of the crops, also if the agricultural sector becomes more sustainable it has the potential to create more economic growth in the rural areas. It generated job opportunities in adding value as in the food processing industry in bringing agricultural products to the consumer and in providing support. It is clear from the passive above that from India seeking their independence from Britain in 1947 to the present day, that India have made great progress in trying to increase their sustainability and profitability as a nation and the passages about sustainability in Agriculture and in electricity production highlight this fact. If India also carries on with its current progress i can see it become from a developing country to a developed country within 20 years and then from there i can see itself and china becoming the most developed and powerful countries in the world. I also have concluded that India have no problems in their sustainability sector in the production of their electricity because them as a nation are investing heavily in renewable sources in ways of creating their electricity properly and with little harm to the environment!!
From doing this project i have learned a lot about India as a country and learned an incredible amount about on the ways a country can make themselves more sustainable and more self-sufficient and also the importance of preparation before tackling into a project/assignment. From the information provided above, it is clear that India are increasing their productivity and in the process making them more of a sustainable country. I must thank you sincerely for reading my project and i hope you enjoy the information i have enclosed above!! 🙂 🙂 🙂
Books that were used!!!
geography leaving certificate book called GEO also was a great help..